s’ speaking ability and cognitive skills (i.e. Creativity vs. Autonomy).
H02: CCT task- based instruction is not more effective than LS task- based instruction in developing Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ Speaking ability.
H03: CCT task – based instruction does not have any significant effect on developing learners’ creativity.
H04: CCT task – based instruction does not have any significant effect on developing learners’ autonomy.
H05: LS task – based instruction does not have any significant effect on developing learners’ autonomy.
H06: LS task- based instruction does not have any significant effect on developing learners’ creativity.
H07: CCT task – based instruction is not more effective than LS task- based instruction in developing learners’ autonomy.
H08: CCT task – based instruction is not more effective than LS task- based instruction in developing learners’ creativity.
4.2 Results
4.2.1 Testing Assumptions
Four assumptions should be met before one decides to run parametric tests (Field, 2009). The data should be measured on an interval scale. The subjects should be independent that is to say their performance on the test is not affected by the performance of other students. The data should enjoy normal distribution and finally the groups should have homogeneous variances. The present data were measured on an interval scale and the subjects’ performed independently on tests. The assumption of normality was also met. As displayed in Table 4.1, the ratios of skewness and kurtosis over their respective standard errors are within the ranges of +/- 1.96.
Table 4.1: Testing Normality Assumption
Level
N
Skewness
Kurtosis
Statistic
Statistic
Std. Error
Ratio
Statistic
Std. Error
Ratio
Short Story
PET
27
.030
.448
0.07
.244
.872
0.28
PreCreativity
27
-.588
.448
-1.31
.996
.872
1.14
PostCreativity
27
-.365
.448
-0.81
.081
.872
0.09
PreAutonomy
27
-.016
.448
-0.04
.800
.872
0.92
PostAutonomy
27
-.177
.448
-0.40
.041
.872
0.05
Valid N (listwise)
27
Cue Cards Timed
PET
25
.055
.464
0.12
.670
.902
0.74
PreCreativity
25
.027
.464
0.06
-.234
.902
-0.26
PostCreativity
25
.192
.464
0.41
-.141
.902
-0.16
PreAutonomy
25
-.271
.464
-0.58
.264
.902
0.29
PostAutonomy
25
-.218
.464
-0.47
.945
.902
1.05
Valid N (listwise)
25
The assumption of homogeneity of variances will be discussed when reporting the results of the independent t-tests.
4.2.2 PET Scores (General Language Proficiency)
An independent t-test was run to compare the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the PET in order to prove that both groups enjoyed the same level of general language proficiency prior to the administration of the treatment. As displayed in Table 4.2, the LS (M = 79.41, SD = 4.50) and CCT (M = 78.52, SD = 3.57) groups showed almost the same means on the PET .
Table 4.2: Descriptive Statistics; PET by Groups
Level
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
PET
LS
27
79.41
4.509
.868
CCT
25
78.52
3.572
.714
The results of the independent t-test (t (50) = .78, P .05, R = .11 representing a weak effect size) (Table 4.3) indicate that there was not any significant difference between the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the PET. Thus, it can be concluded that they enjoyed the same level of general language proficiency prior to the administration of the treatment.
Table 4.3: Independent Samples Test, PET by Groups
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances assumed
1.457
.233
.782
50
.438
.887
1.134
-1.390
3.165
Equal variances not assumed
.790
48.870
.434
.887
1.124
-1.371
3.146
It should be noted that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met (Levene’s F = 1.45, P .05). That is why the first row of Table 4.3, i.e. “Equal variances not assumed” was reported.
Graph 4.1: PET by Groups
4.2.3 Oral Proficiency Test (Pretest)
An independent t-test was run to compare the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the pretest of oral proficiency in order to prove that both groups enjoyed the same level of speaking ability prior to the administration of the treatment. As displayed in Table 4.4, the LS (M = 34.22, SD = 2.56) and CCT (M = 34.84, SD = 3.19) groups showed almost the same means on the pretest of oral proficiency.
Table 4.4: Descriptive Statistics; Oral Proficiency Test(Pretest) by Groups
Level
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
PET
LS
27
34.22
2.562
.493
CCT
25
34.84
3.197
.639
The results of the independent t-test (t (50) = .77, P .05, R = .10 representing a weak effect size) (Table 4.5) indicate that there was not any significant difference between the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the pretest of oral proficiency. Thus, it can be concluded that they enjoyed the same level of speaking ability prior to the administration of the treatment.
Table 4.5: Independent Samples Test, Oral Proficiency Test( Pretest) by Groups
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances assumed
2.021
.161
.772
50
.444
.618
.801
-.990
2.226
Equal variances not assumed
.765
46.009
.448
.618
.807
-1.008
2.243
It should be noted that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met (Levene’s F = 2.02, P .05). That is why the first row of Table 4.5, i.e. “Equal variances not assumed” was reported.
Graph 4.2: Oral Proficiency Test(Pretest) by Groups
4.2.4 Pretest of Autonomy
An independent t-test was run to compare the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the pretest of autonomy in order to prove that both groups enjoyed the same level of autonomy prior to the administration of the treatment. As displayed in Table 4.6, the LS (M = 36.93, SD = 4.39) and CCT (M = 36.84, SD = 3.03) groups showed almost the same means on the pretest of autonomy.
Table 4.6: Descriptive Statistics; Pretest of Autonomy by Groups
Level
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
PET
LS
27
36.93
4.393
.846
CCT
25
36.84
3.037
.607
The results of the independent t-test (t (50) = .081, P .05, R = .011 representing a weak effect size) (Table 4.7) indicate that there was not any significant difference between the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the pretest of autonomy. Thus, it can be concluded that they enjoyed the same level of autonomy prior to the administration of the treatment.
Table 4.7: Independent Samples Test, Pretest of Autonomy by Groups
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances assumed
1.795
.186
.081
50
.935
.086
1.056
-2.034
2.206
Equal variances not assumed
.083
46.379
.935
.086
1.041
-2.009
2.181
It should be noted that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met (Levene’s F = 1.79, P .05). That is why the first row of Table 4.7, i.e. “Equal variances not assumed” was reported.
Graph 4.3: Pretest of Autonomy by Groups
4.2.5 Pretest of Creativity
An independent t-test was run to compare the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the pretest of creativity in order to prove that both groups enjoyed the same level of creativity prior to the administration of the treatment. As displayed in Table 4.8, the LS (M = 35.44, SD = 3.05) and CCT (M = 35.84, SD = 3.43) groups showed almost the same means on the pretest of creativity.
Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistics; Pretest of Creativity by Groups
Level
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
PET
LS
27
35.44
3.055
.588
CCT
25
35.84
3.436
.687
The results of the independent t-test (t (50) = .43, P .05, R = .062 representing a weak effect size) (Table 4.9) indicate that there was not any significant difference between the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the pretest of creativity. Thus, it can be concluded that they enjoyed the same level of creativity prior to the administration of the treatment.
Table 4.9: Independent Samples Test, Pretest of Creativity by Groups
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances assumed
1.374
.247
.439
50
.662
.396
.900
-1.413
2.204
Equal variances not assumed
.437
48.170
.664
.396
.904
-1.423
2.214
It should be noted that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met (Levene’s F = 1.37, P .05). That is why the first row of Table 4.9, i.e. “Equal variances not assumed” was reported.
Graph 4.4: Pretest of Creativity by Groups
4.2.6 Investigation of the Major Research Question
In order to investigate the major research question addressing if task type (i.e. Cue Card (CCT) vs. Linguistic Summarizing (LS)) has any distinctive effects on developing EFL learners’ speaking ability and cognitive skills (i.e. Creativity vs. Autonomy), a two-way ANOVA was run to compare the two groups’ means on the posttests of oral proficiency, creativity and autonomy. Before discussing the results it

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