achievement. Results from Pearson product-moment correlation showed a significant correlation between learners’ creativity and their foreign language achievement as measured by their university GPA.
Chapter Two was designed to address the three main variables including development of both language skills and cognitive abilities namely speaking, creativity and autonomy in relation to TBLT. To do so, a comprehensive study of the issues from both theoretical and empirical perspectives was conducted. The study generally gives insights on the areas covered or still left roughly intact. Though TBLT has received much attention in the literature, it’s contributions to development of speaking skill and also to development of cognitive parameters such as creativity and autonomy are among the intact areas for further studies. So, such a gap and lack of adequate studies warranted conduct of the present study supposed to entail both theoretical and pedagogical contributions.
This study was instigated to investigate the effect of Cue Card Timed (CCT) and Linguistic Summarizing (LS) on the development of the Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability and cognitive skills of creativity and autonomy. To do so, the method section comprises details of the participants, instrumentation, procedure, design of the study and analysis of the data described as follows:
For the purpose of present study, 52 females and males agreed to take part. Having received the PET, the participants were divided into two experimental groups, the first group (Linguistic Summarizing) consisted of 27 Iranian intermediate EFL learners, included 6 males and the second group(Cue Card Timed) consisted of 25 Iranian intermediate EFL learners, which involved 4 males.
The participants came from different language schools with different language experiences and different goals. They ranged in age from 17 to 35, with the mean of 30.5, from different socio-economic backgrounds. Nearly all participants had university education such that 85 percent of them graduated in B.A or B.S and 15 percent in M.A or M.S.
3.3 Instrumentation and Validation
The tools used in this research were two questionnaires of Learner creativity and Learner Autonomy. Moreover, the researcher used the Preliminary English Test (PET), as a proficiency test, to measure the participants language proficiency for the purpose of homogeneity. In addition, cue cards and level short stories were used.
A ) The creativity questionnaire, has been designed and standardized by Arjomand (2003, as cited in Akbari, Ahghar, Hosseini , & Sharifi, 2009) in order to measure the creativity of the participants. It comprises 75 five-point items based on likert scale: very high, high , to some extent low, and very low.
B) The Learner Autonomy questionnaire developed by Cotterall (2005) has 34 items. There were no right or wrong answers to the questions and the answers were divided into six parts (Strongly agree/ Agree/ Neutral/ Disagree/ Strongly disagree).
Actually, the KR-21 reliability indices for the PET, pretests and posttests of autonomy and creativity were .92, .87, .91, .88 and .89, respectively. Moreover, since the pretest and posttest of oral proficiency were rated by two raters, the inter-rater reliability indices for the pretest (R (50) = .86, P .05 representing a large effect size) and posttest (R (50) = .87, P .05 representing a large effect size) of oral proficiency indicated that there were significant agreement between the two raters.
Table 3.1: Inter-Rater Reliability, Pretest and Posttest
of Oral Proficiency
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
188.8.131.52 Construct Validity
Factor analysis through the varimax rotation method was carried out to probe the underlying constructs of the tests administered in this study. The SPSS extracted three factors which accounted for 74.04 percent of total variance Table 3.2)
Table 3.2: Total Variance Explained
Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
% of Variance
% of Variance
% of Variance
As displayed in Table 3.3, the PET and pretest and posttest of oral proficiency loaded on the first factor which can be labeled as general proficiency factor. The pretests and posttests of creativity and autonomy loaded on the second and third factors which can be labeled as creativity and autonomy factors. Then, rightly there are three separate constructs: Language construct, Creativity construct and Autonomy construct; all indicating their separate validities.
Table 3.3: Rotated Component Matrixa
For task –based instructional materials, the researcher employed 10 cue cards which were selected from the Speaking part of sample IELTS exam. Moreover, the level short story was selected based on Linguistic Summarizing Task- based instruction that EFL learners were asked to summarize the story so that their speaking ability could be measured. The level short story chosen, was ‘Wuthering Heights’ in stage five which involved 1800 headwords and 18 chapters
The study was undertaken in one private language Institute (Iranmehr) in Karaj. First of all, in order to select homogeneous EFL learners, the PET was administered. Accordingly, at first the 75 EFL learners were chosen randomly. After administering the PET exam, 15 English learners, whose scores lied beyond one ±SD, were discarded from the original samples. Then, they were divided into two groups based on their PET scores, Linguistic Summarizing (LS) group, comprised 27 participants and Cue Cards Timed (CCT) group, consisted of 25 ones.
After that, the Creativity and Autonomy questionnaires were distributed among students in order to estimate their creativity and autonomy at the beginning of the study. In addition, the speaking ability of the participants was assessed by two raters before the treatment and the scores were reported to the researcher.
Next, in each session one topic in the format of LELTS cue cards, was given to EFL learners based on Cue- Card Timed Instruction. The students were asked to be ready for another session and had to manage their speaking in 2 minutes. In each session, the speaking time of EFL learners was written on a table for 10 sessions in order to evaluate the development of their speaking ability. In the second stage, based on Linguistic- summarizing Task- based instruction one level short story was selected (Wuthering Heights, stage 5), and students summarized 10 pages till the ten – session treatment finished.
At the end of the treatments, the questionnaires were distributed among the participants in order to estimate their creativity and autonomy and to explore which instruction was more effective. Three participants from Linguistic Summarizing group and five ones from the Cue cards Timed group had not attempted the questionnaires fully. Therefore, the participants of this study reduced from 60 to 52 participants.
In addition, after the ten – session treatment, the researcher employed two raters in order to assess EFL learners’ speaking ability measured based on an extraction from the speaking part of PET.
Because of the absence of control group, the nature of comparing the two groups received certain instruction and also made judgment mainly based on post-test evaluation, the design was an experimental in nature but mainly based on comparison group design (Hatch & Farhady,1981).
As an experimental study and quantitative data – based in terms of procedure, the study went through both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. However , rational paradigm (i.e. parametric) was followed having collected and checked the date in terms of normality assumption. Then, in addition to the respective descriptive statistics, both independent and paired samples t- tests as well as ANOVAs were run.
This study aims at investigating the effect of Cue Card Timed (CCT) and Linguistic Summarizing (LS) on the development of the Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability and cognitive skills of creativity and autonomy. To fulfill the objectives of this study, the following tests were administered to the pareicipants; PET, pretest and posttest of speaking, creativity and autonomy.
In addition, the purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesized effect of TBLT (through Cue card and Linguistic Summarizing tasks) on developing EFL learners’ ability at intermediate level. The hypotheses of this study were as follows:
H01: Task type (i.e. CCT vs. LS) does not have any distinctive effects on developing EFL learners’
(2003) ‘Integrating intellectual capital and knowledge management’. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 399-405. 41) Uziene, J. C., (2010), Entrepreneurship and Growth: The Strategic Use of External Resources, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 4, PP: 133-147. 42) ادامه مطلب…