need to form neural connections between each other to operate effectively and understand things fully.” (Starbuck , 2006, p.5). In an attempt to link task with mental mechanism , he further ( 2006) states that ” Tasks that use both sides of the brain stimulate neural connections and therefore tend to grab students’ attention” (p.5).
From a psychological point of view,” creativity is an important factor because it provides a framework for the description of an individual, and also specific differences between individual. These individuals differences are important because they can be used to predict future behavior such as academic success” (Otto1998, cited in Khodadady, Pishghadam & Zabihi, 2011, p.466). In the area of second language learning, however, some studies have been done on creativity, (Albert, 2006; Albert & Kormos, 2004;Dornyei, 2005; Mecra & pemya, 2010). In addition, there are three aspects of creativity, i.e creative fluency, originality and flexibility, employed by the researchers (Khodadady, Pishghadam & Zabihi, 2011). Furthermore, Guilford (1950) states that ” a creative act is an instance of learning and that a comprehensive learning theory must take into account both insight and creative activity”(cited in Fasko, 2001, p.446). In this regard, Guilford (1967) suggested that transformation of information is a key to understanding insight. Besides, creative learning is widely understood to be characterized by:
• Questioning and challenging
• Making connections and seeing relationships
• Envisaging what might be
• Exploring ideas, keeping options open
• Reflecting critically on ideas, actions and outcomes (Anonymous, 2010, p.8).
Actually, any clear definition of creativity has been questioned from a variety of angles. In fact, in the past, researchers tended to center this discussion on either the creative person or the creative process.
Some theorists continue to think of creativity as process their definitions most frequently cite characteristics of the product as the distinguishing signs of creativity . A product or response will be judged as creative to the extent that(a) it is both a novel and an appropriate, useful, correct, or valuable response to the task at hand, and (b) the task is open- ended with more than one way of doing (Amabile & Hennessey,1987, p.7).
This is probably the single most difficult question to answer that what autonomy is, and it is likely to be subjective. Benson (2006) states that” autonomy is about people taking more control over their lives- individually and collectively. Autonomy in learning is about people taking more control over their learning in the classroom and outside them and autonomy in language learning about people taking more control over the purpose for which they learn languages and the ways in which they learn them.”(p.114). He further (2006) believes that” autonomy can also be described as a capacity to take charge of, or take responsibility for, or control over your own learning.”(p.114).So, it is believed that autonomy can involve abilities and attitudes that people possess, and can develop to various degree.
There are a number of terms related to autonomy that can be distinguished in various ways. These terms are, ‘self-instruction’, ‘self- access’, ‘self- study’, ‘self- education’, ‘out of class learning’, and ‘distance learning’.(Benson, 2006).
1.1.6 Language Skills
Four traditional skills of language use are speaking , writing , reading and listening , they can be categorized according to their direction and modality. According to Sauvignon (1991) language generated by the learner ( in speech or writing) is productive , and language directed at the learner ( in reading or listening ) is receptive( cited in Nabavi Ekhlas, 2012, p.14).
According to Rost (2002 ) listening comprehension is an inferential process. Rost (2002) stated ” The term listening is used in language teaching to refer to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. Listening is the channel in which we process language in real time – employing pacing , units of encoding and pausing that are unique to spoken language “( cited in Nabavi Ekhlas, 2012, pp.14-15 ).
Bygate (1987) stated ” speaking in a second language (L2) involves the development of a particular type of communication skill” (cited in Nabavi Ekhlas, 2012. p.15).
Rayner et al. (2001) stated that ” Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text”(p. 31).
Hedge (2000) pointed that ” Writing is the result of employing strategies to manage the composing process , which is one gradually developing a text ” (Nabavi Ekhlas, 2012, p.15).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It seems that improving speaking ability among EFL learners is one of the important factors in learning a foreign language. However, the extent to which they are able to speak fluently and accurately is still blurred. Therefore, it would be pedagogically useful to investigate whether TBLI can affect developing EFL learners’ speaking ability. Moreover, it is valuable to survey whether Cue card Timed and Linguistic Summarizing Tasks affect the developing EFL learners’ speaking ability, their autonomy and creativity at intermediate level. Besides, employing newly developed methods of teaching such as task-based instruction as underlying layer for speaking ability, may pave the way of becoming more autonomous and creative in thinking process. This might imply the dependence of individuals on books and also on their teachers can lead to more independency in skill acquisition.
Furthermore, English, as a foreign language, is regarded as a central channel in current information age and the main source for getting information about the world. However, employing appropriate tasks by teachers may have an effective impact not only on learners’ motivation, which is one of the learner characteristics, but also on learners output in order to learn English more autonomously.
Since, most of the time, teachers pay more attention to talkative, outgoing, and self –assured students, and also it might be made a mistake between these kinds of learners and who are called creative ones, it is worth drawing attention to both development of learners’ creativity and the correct definition of creative learners.
In addition, according to Benson (2006) autonomy is a capacity to take charge of or take responsibility for or control over learners ‘ own learning. So, from this point of view autonomy involves, abilities and attitudes that people possesses and can develop to various degrees. However, the teachers who want to employ the task in order to increase autonomous learning, should be aware that teaching autonomously does not mean that learners by themselves have to carry full responsibility for their learning.
Considering the above mentioned status, the researcher of this study tried to claim that autonomous teaching and autonomous learning are interrelated concepts.
1.3 Purpose and Significance of the Study
Mastery of speaking English, or it is better to say, communication and negotiation has become one of the major factors in the present world; thus, improving effective communication abilities has established the main focus in all developing countries.
Many young Iranian English learners are looking for the ways which can encourage, motivate and offer them correct ways of learning. Accordingly, attention needs to be drawn to the individual differences which are assumed to play an important role in teaching and learning process.
Given the problem stated above, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TBLT (through Cue card Timed and Linguistic Summarizing tasks) on developing EFL learners’ speaking ability at intermediate level. In fact, an attempt was made to explore which of two tasks was more effective in developing EFL learners’ speaking ability. This study also attempted to find out the extent to which TBLI could improve both learner autonomy and creativity. The significance of this study resides in opening a new way of thinking and stating ideas freely among EFL learners and also EFL teachers by employing new methods such as TBLT.
It is expected that the outcome of this study can provide direct benefits to the Iranian learners in order to know individual differ
Richards and Rodgers (2001) stated that ” few would question the pedagogical value of employing tasks as a vehicle for promoting communication and authentic use in second language classroom, and depending on one’s definition of a task , tasks have long been part of the mainstream repertoire of language teaching techniques for teachers of many different methodological persuasions. TBLT, however, offers a different rational for the use of tasks as well as different criteria for the design and use of tasks”(pp.240-241).
According to Nunan (2004),”Pedagogically task- based language teaching has strengthened the following principles and practices:
• A need- based approach to content selection
• An example on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
• The introduction of authentic texts in to the learning situation.
• The provision of opportunities for learners to focus not only on language but also on the learning process itself.
• An enhancement of the learner’s own personal
(2003) ‘Integrating intellectual capital and knowledge management’. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 399-405. 41) Uziene, J. C., (2010), Entrepreneurship and Growth: The Strategic Use of External Resources, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 4, PP: 133-147. 42) ادامه مطلب…