cognitive activity in which is required to demonstrate control of a number of variables simultaneously ” Nunan,1989, p. 34).)
In recent years, there are two different approaches, the first one is what we can call the product approach and the second one we shall call the process approach. The product approach to writing focuses on the end result of the act of composition i.e. the letter, story, essay and so on. Those who advocate a process approach to writing, focus as much on the means whereby the completed text focus on the end product itself ( Nunan ,1989 ). So, successful writing involves:
• Mastering the mechanics of letter formation
• Mastering and obeying conventions of spelling and punctuation
• Using the grammatical system to convey one’s intended meaning
• Polishing and revising one’s initial effects
• Selecting appropriate style for one’s audience ( Nunan,1989, p. 37 ).
126.96.36.199.1 Tasks for Writing Skill
There are some tasks are useful in writing process. Imitative, or writing down, Intensive, or controlled, self writing . In fact, “at the beginning level of learning to write student will simply write down English letters, words, and possibly sentences in order to learn the conventions of the orthographic code . Moreover, sometimes, writing is used as a production mode for learning, reinforcing or testing grammatical concepts. This intensive writing typically appears in controlled, written grammar exercises.” ( Brown, 2001, pp. 343-344). Self writing is a kind of writing that a significant part of classroom writing may be interested in it or writing with only the self in mind as an audience . The best example of this category in classroom is not – taking where students take notes during a lecture for the purpose of later recall (Brown, 2001 ).
188.8.131.52 The Nature of Speaking Skill
Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished between spoken and written languages. They pointed out that for most of its history, language teaching has been concerned with teaching of written language . The written language is characterized by sentences which are combined with highly structured paragraphs. On the other hand, spoken language consists of short utterances in a range of pronunciation. Besides, they also drew a useful distinction between two basic language functions. These are transactional function and interactional function. The main focus of transactional function is on the transfer of information, on the other hand, the interactional function is primarily concerned with the maintenance of social relationship (cited in Nunan,1989, p.27).
Another classification of speaking skill is between monologue and dialogue, “The ability to give an uninterrupted oral presentation is quite distinct from interacting with one or more other speakers for transactional and interactional purpose. While all native speakers can and do use language interaction ally, not all native speakers have the ability to extemporize on a given subject to a group of listeners ” (Nunan ,1989, p.27).
Besides, another distinction is between Top – down and Bottom – up approaches. The bottom – up approach suggests that we start with the smallest units of language i.e. individual sounds and move through mastery of words and sentences to discourse. But , the top – down is concerned with the larger chunks of language which are embedded in meaningful contexts, and use our knowledge of these contexts to comprehend and use the smaller element of language (Nunan, 1989). In summary, then, successful oral communication involve developing:
• Mastery of stress , rhythm , intonation patterns.
• An acceptable degree of fluency.
• Transactional and interpersonal skills.
• Skills in talking short and long speaking turns.
• Skills in negotiating meaning (Nunan ,1989, p. 32).
According to Kingen (2000), speaking purposes are analysed as follows:
• Personal : expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas.
• Descriptive: describing someone or something, real or imagined.
• Narrative: creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events.
• Instructive: giving instructions or providing directions designed to produce an outcome.
• Questioning: asking questions to obtain information.
• Comparative: comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.
• Imaginative: expressing mental images of people, places, events, and objects.
• Predictive: predicting possible future events.
• Interpretative: exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences.
• Persuasive: changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way.
• Explanatory: explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions.
• Informative: sharing information with others (cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky, 2006, p.22).
184.108.40.206.1 Aspects of Speaking:
In fact, aspects of speaking need to be scrutinized carefully. So, these aspects create some challenges and pick some guidelines out to understand this skill and represent the effective ways to communicate better in real life situations to the learners ( Abd EL Fattah Torky , 2006).
➢ a. Speaking is face to face
Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize. “Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such factors facilitate communication ” ( El Fayoumy, 1997, Widdowson, 1998 & Burns, 1998, cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky,2006, p.35 ).
➢ b. Speaking is interactive
Mc Donough& Mackey( 2000) stated ” Whether we are speaking face-to –face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other. Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages “(cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky, 2006, p.35 ).
➢ c. Speaking happens in real time
Foster et al.( 2000) “During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this” (cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky, 2006, p.36). On the other hand , when speaking happens in real life affects the speaker’s ability to plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used(Abd EL Fattah Torky, 2006). As Miller (2001) pointed out Speakers often start to say something and change their mind during speaking which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky, 2006, p.35).
220.127.116.11.2 Speaking Genres
McCarthy (1997) classified speaking extracts in terms of genres as follows:
• Narrative: A series of everyday anecdotes told with active listener
• Identifying: Extracts in which people talk about themselves, their
biography, where they live, their jobs, their likes and dislikes.
• Language-in-action: Data recorded while people are doing things such
as cooking, packing, moving furniture… etc.
• Comment-elaboration: People giving casual opinions and commenting
on things, other people, events and so on.
• Debate and argument: Data, in which people take up positions, pursue
arguments and expound on their opinions.
• Decision-making and negotiating outcomes: Data illustrating ways in
which people work towards decisions/consensus or negotiate their way
through problems towards solutions (cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky , 2006, p.40).
18.104.22.168.3 Speaking Instructions
According to Ellis (2003), speaking instructions are divided into three parts as follows:
Accuracy : when language is produced, in terms of grammar, vocabulary, discourse, pragmatic features, conforms to target language norms and the extent to which learners try to produce correct, but possibly limited language.
Complexity: the ability to use speaking skills in a more native – like way which reflects the degree of language development.
Fluency: the learner’s capacity to use speaking competencies (linguistic, discourse and pragmatic) in real time without any pauses (cited in Abd EL Fattah Torky , 2006, p.74).
22.214.171.124.4 Tasks for Speaking Skill
There are a number of widely – used categories of speaking tasks that will be useful to improve speaking ability.
➢ Acting from a script
Actually, students are asked to act out scenes from plays and their course books, sometimes filming the results. It is divided in two parts play scripts and act out dialogues. In play scripts, it is important that when students are working on plays or play scripts, they should treat it as ‘real’ acting. On the other hand, in acting out dialogues, one student should come to the front of the class and should give them the appropriate time in order to work on their dialogues. (Harmer, 2011 ).
➢ Communication games
” There are many communication games which aim to get students talking as quickly and fluently as possible. One of them is information – gab
(2003) ‘Integrating intellectual capital and knowledge management’. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 399-405. 41) Uziene, J. C., (2010), Entrepreneurship and Growth: The Strategic Use of External Resources, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 4, PP: 133-147. 42) ادامه مطلب…