earners’ speaking ability and cognitive skills (i.e. Creativity vs. Autonomy), a two-way ANOVA was run to compare the two groups’ means on the posttests of oral proficiency, creativity and autonomy. Before discussing the results it should be mentioned that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met. As displayed in Table 4.10, the Levene’s F-value of 1.09 was not significant (P .05). Thus, it can be concluded that the homogeneity of variances assumption was met.

Table 4.10: Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances

F

df1

df2

Sig.

1.098

5

150

.364

Based on the results displayed in Table 4.11, it can be concluded that there was a significant difference between the LS and CCT groups’ grand means on the three tests (F (1, 150) = 17.40, P .05, Partial η2 = .104 representing an almost large effect size). The major null-hypothesis was rejected.

Table 4.11: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

Level

198.164

1

198.164

17.409

.000

.104

Tests

449.834

2

224.917

19.759

.000

.209

Level * Tests

465.450

2

232.725

20.445

.000

.214

Error

1707.425

150

11.383

Total

215824.000

156

As displayed in Table 4.12, the CCT group (M = 38.12, SE = .39) outperformed the LS group (M = 35.86, SE = .37) on the grand mean for the posttests of oral proficiency, autonomy and creativity.

Table 4.12: Descriptive Statistics; Grand mean by Groups

Level

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

LS

35.864

.375

35.123

36.605

CCT

38.120

.390

37.350

38.890

Based on the results displayed in Table 4.11, it can be concluded that there were significant differences between the Iranian EFL learners’ means on the posttests of oral proficiency, autonomy and creativity irrespective of group membership (F (2, 150) = 19.75, P .05, Partial η2 = .209 representing a large effect size). As displayed in Table 4.13 the subjects showed the highest mean on the posttest of autonomy (M = 39.34). This was followed by the posttest of creativity (M = 36.24) and oral proficiency (M = 35.38).

Table 4.13: Descriptive Statistics; Oral Proficiency Test, Creativity and Autonomy( Posttests)

Tests

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Creativity

36.249

.468

35.324

37.174

Autonomy

39.343

.468

38.418

40.268

Oral

35.384

.468

34.459

36.310

Although the F-value of 19.75 indicated significant differences between the means on the three tests, the post-hoc Scheffe’s tests had to be run to compare the tests two by two. Based on the results displayed in Table 4.14, it can be concluded that;

A: There was not any significant difference between the subjects’ means on the posttest of creativity (M = 36.24) and the posttest of oral proficiency (M = 35.38) (MD = .98, P .05).

B: There was a significant difference between the subjects’ means on the posttest of creativity (M = 36.24) and the posttest of autonomy (M = 39.34) (MD = 3.13, P .05).

Table 4.14: Multiple Comparisons

(I) Tests

(J) Tests

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Creativity

Oral

.98

.662

.336

-.66

2.62

Autonomy

Creativity

3.13*

.662

.000

1.50

4.77

Oral

4.12*

.662

.000

2.48

5.75

*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

C: There was a significant difference between the subjects’ means on the posttest of autonomy (M = 39.34) and posttest of oral proficiency (M = 35.38) (MD = 4.12, P .05).

There was a significant interaction between the performance of the two groups and the three tests (F (2, 150) = 20.44, P .05, Partial η2 = .214 representing a large effect size) (Table 4.11). As displayed in Table 4.15 and Graph 4.4, the CCT subjects showed higher means on creativity and oral proficiency while the LS group showed a higher mean on autonomy.

Table 4.15: Descriptive Statistics, Interaction Effect

Level

Tests

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

LS

Creativity

35.778

.649

34.495

37.061

Autonomy

39.926

.649

38.643

41.209

Oral

31.889

.649

30.606

33.172

CCT

Creativity

36.720

.675

35.387

38.053

Autonomy

38.760

.675

37.427

40.093

Oral

38.880

.675

37.547

40.213

Graph 4.5: Interaction between Groups and Tests

4.2.7 Investigation of the Minor Research Question One

In order to investigate the minor research question one addressing if CCT task- based instruction is more effective than LS task – based instruction in developing Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ speaking ability, an independent t-test was run to compare the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the posttest of oral proficiency in order to probe the first minor research question. As displayed in Table 4.16, the CCT group (M = 38.88, SD = 2.81) outperformed the LS group (M = 31.89, SD = 2.77) on the posttest of oral proficiency.

Table 4.16: Descriptive Statistics; Oral Proficiency Test( Posttest) by Groups

Level

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Post

Oral

CCT

25

38.88

2.818

.564

LS

27

31.89

2.778

.535

The results of the independent t-test (t (50) = 9, P .05, R = .78 representing a large effect size) (Table 4.17) indicate that there was a significant difference between the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the posttest of oral proficiency. Thus, the first minor null-hypothesis was rejected.

Table 4.17: Independent Samples Test, Oral Proficiency Test( Posttest) by Groups

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

Df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Equal variances assumed

.017

.896

9.004

50

.000

6.991

.776

5.432

8.551

Equal variances not assumed

8.999

49.572

.000

6.991

.777

5.430

8.552

It should be noted that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met (Levene’s F = .017, P .05). That is why the first row of Table 4.17, i.e. “Equal variances not assumed” was reported.

Graph 4.6:Oral Proficiency Test (Posttest) by Groups

4.2.8 Investigation of the Minor Research Question Two

In order to investigate the minor research question two addressing if the CCT task-based instruction has any significant effect on developing learners’ creativity, a paired-samples t-test was run to compare the CCT group’s means on the pretest and posttest of creativity in order to investigate the effect of CCT on the development of the creativity of the EFL learners. Based on the results displayed in Table 4.18, it can be claimed that the CCT group showed a slightly higher mean on the posttest of creativity (M = 36.72, SD = 2.96) compared with pretest (M = 35.84, SD = 3.43)

Table 4.18: Paired Samples Statistics; Pretest and Posttest of Creativity (CCT Group)

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Creativity

Posttest

36.72

25

2.965

.593

Pretest

35.84

25

3.436

.687

The results of the paired-samples t-test (t (24) = 1.94, P .05, R = .36 representing a moderate effect size) (Table 4.18) indicate that there was non-significant but moderate difference between the CCT group’s mean scores on the pretest and posttest of creativity. Thus, the second minor null-hypothesis was not rejected.

Table 4.19: Paired Samples t-test; Pretest and Posttest of Creativity (CCT Group)

Paired Differences

t

Df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

.880

2.261

.452

-.053

1.813

1.946

24

.063

Graph 4.7: Pretest and Posttest of Creativity (CCT Group)

4.2.9 Investigation of the Minor Research Question Three

In order to investigate the minor research question three addressing if CCT task- based instruction has any significant effect on developing learners’ autonomy, a paired-samples t-test was run to compare the CCT group’s means on the pretest and posttest of autonomy in order to investigate the effect of CCT on the development of the autonomy of the EFL learners. Based on the results displayed in Table 4.22, it can be claimed that the CCT group showed a higher mean on the posttest of autonomy (M = 38.76, SD = 4.19) compared with the pretest (M = 36.84, SD = 3.03).

Table 4.20: Paired Samples Statistics; Pretest and Posttest of Autonomy (CCT Group)

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Autonomy

Posttest

38.76

25

4.196

.839

Pretest

36.84

25

3.037

.607

The results of the paired-samples t-test (t (24) = 3.23, P .05, R = .52 representing a large effect size) (Table 4.21) indicate that there was a significant difference between the CCT group’s mean scores on the pretest and posttest of autonomy. Thus, the third minor null-hypothesis was rejected.

Table 4.21: Paired Samples t-test; Pretest and Posttest of Autonomy (CCT Group)

Paired Differences

t

Df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

1.920

3.174

.635

.610

3.230

3.024

24

.006

Graph 4.8: Pretest and Posttest of Autonomy (CCT Group)

4.2.10 Investigation of the Minor Research Question Four

In order to investigate the minor research question four addressing if LS task–based instruction has any significant effect on developing learners’ autonomy, a paired-samples t-test was run to compare the LS group’s means on the pretest and posttest of autonomy in order to investigate the effect of

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#### منبع پایان نامه درمورد and، of، the

(2003) ‘Integrating intellectual capital and knowledge management’. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 399-405. 41) Uziene, J. C., (2010), Entrepreneurship and Growth: The Strategic Use of External Resources, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 4, PP: 133-147. 42) ادامه مطلب…