earners’ speaking ability and cognitive skills (i.e. Creativity vs. Autonomy), a two-way ANOVA was run to compare the two groups’ means on the posttests of oral proficiency, creativity and autonomy. Before discussing the results it should be mentioned that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met. As displayed in Table 4.10, the Levene’s F-value of 1.09 was not significant (P .05). Thus, it can be concluded that the homogeneity of variances assumption was met.
Table 4.10: Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances
F
df1
df2
Sig.
1.098
5
150
.364
Based on the results displayed in Table 4.11, it can be concluded that there was a significant difference between the LS and CCT groups’ grand means on the three tests (F (1, 150) = 17.40, P .05, Partial η2 = .104 representing an almost large effect size). The major null-hypothesis was rejected.
Table 4.11: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Partial Eta Squared
Level
198.164
1
198.164
17.409
.000
.104
Tests
449.834
2
224.917
19.759
.000
.209
Level * Tests
465.450
2
232.725
20.445
.000
.214
Error
1707.425
150
11.383
Total
215824.000
156
As displayed in Table 4.12, the CCT group (M = 38.12, SE = .39) outperformed the LS group (M = 35.86, SE = .37) on the grand mean for the posttests of oral proficiency, autonomy and creativity.
Table 4.12: Descriptive Statistics; Grand mean by Groups
Level
Mean
Std. Error
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
LS
35.864
.375
35.123
36.605
CCT
38.120
.390
37.350
38.890
Based on the results displayed in Table 4.11, it can be concluded that there were significant differences between the Iranian EFL learners’ means on the posttests of oral proficiency, autonomy and creativity irrespective of group membership (F (2, 150) = 19.75, P .05, Partial η2 = .209 representing a large effect size). As displayed in Table 4.13 the subjects showed the highest mean on the posttest of autonomy (M = 39.34). This was followed by the posttest of creativity (M = 36.24) and oral proficiency (M = 35.38).
Table 4.13: Descriptive Statistics; Oral Proficiency Test, Creativity and Autonomy( Posttests)
Tests
Mean
Std. Error
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
Creativity
36.249
.468
35.324
37.174
Autonomy
39.343
.468
38.418
40.268
Oral
35.384
.468
34.459
36.310
Although the F-value of 19.75 indicated significant differences between the means on the three tests, the post-hoc Scheffe’s tests had to be run to compare the tests two by two. Based on the results displayed in Table 4.14, it can be concluded that;
A: There was not any significant difference between the subjects’ means on the posttest of creativity (M = 36.24) and the posttest of oral proficiency (M = 35.38) (MD = .98, P .05).
B: There was a significant difference between the subjects’ means on the posttest of creativity (M = 36.24) and the posttest of autonomy (M = 39.34) (MD = 3.13, P .05).
Table 4.14: Multiple Comparisons
(I) Tests
(J) Tests
Mean Difference (I-J)
Std. Error
Sig.
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
Creativity
Oral
.98
.662
.336
-.66
2.62
Autonomy
Creativity
3.13*
.662
.000
1.50
4.77
Oral
4.12*
.662
.000
2.48
5.75
*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.
C: There was a significant difference between the subjects’ means on the posttest of autonomy (M = 39.34) and posttest of oral proficiency (M = 35.38) (MD = 4.12, P .05).
There was a significant interaction between the performance of the two groups and the three tests (F (2, 150) = 20.44, P .05, Partial η2 = .214 representing a large effect size) (Table 4.11). As displayed in Table 4.15 and Graph 4.4, the CCT subjects showed higher means on creativity and oral proficiency while the LS group showed a higher mean on autonomy.
Table 4.15: Descriptive Statistics, Interaction Effect
Level
Tests
Mean
Std. Error
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
LS
Creativity
35.778
.649
34.495
37.061
Autonomy
39.926
.649
38.643
41.209
Oral
31.889
.649
30.606
33.172
CCT
Creativity
36.720
.675
35.387
38.053
Autonomy
38.760
.675
37.427
40.093
Oral
38.880
.675
37.547
40.213
Graph 4.5: Interaction between Groups and Tests
4.2.7 Investigation of the Minor Research Question One
In order to investigate the minor research question one addressing if CCT task- based instruction is more effective than LS task – based instruction in developing Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ speaking ability, an independent t-test was run to compare the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the posttest of oral proficiency in order to probe the first minor research question. As displayed in Table 4.16, the CCT group (M = 38.88, SD = 2.81) outperformed the LS group (M = 31.89, SD = 2.77) on the posttest of oral proficiency.
Table 4.16: Descriptive Statistics; Oral Proficiency Test( Posttest) by Groups
Level
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Post
Oral
CCT
25
38.88
2.818
.564
LS
27
31.89
2.778
.535
The results of the independent t-test (t (50) = 9, P .05, R = .78 representing a large effect size) (Table 4.17) indicate that there was a significant difference between the CCT and LS groups’ mean scores on the posttest of oral proficiency. Thus, the first minor null-hypothesis was rejected.
Table 4.17: Independent Samples Test, Oral Proficiency Test( Posttest) by Groups
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances assumed
.017
.896
9.004
50
.000
6.991
.776
5.432
8.551
Equal variances not assumed
8.999
49.572
.000
6.991
.777
5.430
8.552
It should be noted that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met (Levene’s F = .017, P .05). That is why the first row of Table 4.17, i.e. “Equal variances not assumed” was reported.
Graph 4.6:Oral Proficiency Test (Posttest) by Groups
4.2.8 Investigation of the Minor Research Question Two
In order to investigate the minor research question two addressing if the CCT task-based instruction has any significant effect on developing learners’ creativity, a paired-samples t-test was run to compare the CCT group’s means on the pretest and posttest of creativity in order to investigate the effect of CCT on the development of the creativity of the EFL learners. Based on the results displayed in Table 4.18, it can be claimed that the CCT group showed a slightly higher mean on the posttest of creativity (M = 36.72, SD = 2.96) compared with pretest (M = 35.84, SD = 3.43)
Table 4.18: Paired Samples Statistics; Pretest and Posttest of Creativity (CCT Group)
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Creativity
Posttest
36.72
25
2.965
.593
Pretest
35.84
25
3.436
.687
The results of the paired-samples t-test (t (24) = 1.94, P .05, R = .36 representing a moderate effect size) (Table 4.18) indicate that there was non-significant but moderate difference between the CCT group’s mean scores on the pretest and posttest of creativity. Thus, the second minor null-hypothesis was not rejected.
Table 4.19: Paired Samples t-test; Pretest and Posttest of Creativity (CCT Group)
Paired Differences
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
.880
2.261
.452
-.053
1.813
1.946
24
.063
Graph 4.7: Pretest and Posttest of Creativity (CCT Group)
4.2.9 Investigation of the Minor Research Question Three
In order to investigate the minor research question three addressing if CCT task- based instruction has any significant effect on developing learners’ autonomy, a paired-samples t-test was run to compare the CCT group’s means on the pretest and posttest of autonomy in order to investigate the effect of CCT on the development of the autonomy of the EFL learners. Based on the results displayed in Table 4.22, it can be claimed that the CCT group showed a higher mean on the posttest of autonomy (M = 38.76, SD = 4.19) compared with the pretest (M = 36.84, SD = 3.03).
Table 4.20: Paired Samples Statistics; Pretest and Posttest of Autonomy (CCT Group)
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Autonomy
Posttest
38.76
25
4.196
.839
Pretest
36.84
25
3.037
.607
The results of the paired-samples t-test (t (24) = 3.23, P .05, R = .52 representing a large effect size) (Table 4.21) indicate that there was a significant difference between the CCT group’s mean scores on the pretest and posttest of autonomy. Thus, the third minor null-hypothesis was rejected.
Table 4.21: Paired Samples t-test; Pretest and Posttest of Autonomy (CCT Group)
Paired Differences
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower
Upper
1.920
3.174
.635
.610
3.230
3.024
24
.006
Graph 4.8: Pretest and Posttest of Autonomy (CCT Group)
4.2.10 Investigation of the Minor Research Question Four
In order to investigate the minor research question four addressing if LS task–based instruction has any significant effect on developing learners’ autonomy, a paired-samples t-test was run to compare the LS group’s means on the pretest and posttest of autonomy in order to investigate the effect of

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