introduction of authentic texts in to the learning situation.
• The provision of opportunities for learners to focus not only on language but also on the learning process itself.
• An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
• The linking of classroom language learning with language use outside the classroom” (p. 1).
Moreover, he (2004) stated that Kenonen’s (1992) model can be seen as a theoretical blueprint for TBLT as can be seen from the following list of percepts for action derived from his work.
• “Encourage the transformation of knowledge within the learner rather than the transmission of knowledge from the teacher to the learner.
• Encourage learners to participate activity in small collaborative groups.
• Embrace a holistic attitude towards subject matter rather than a static, atomistic and hierarchical attitude.
• Emphasize process rather than product, learning how to learn, self – inquiry, social and communication skills.
• Encourage self – directed rather than teacher – directed learning.
• Promote intrinsic rather extrinsic motivation”(p.12).
Moreover,” in a task- based approach tasks serve not only as major components of the methodology but also as units around which a course may be organized” ( Littlewood, 2004, p.324). So, they provide a link between outside classroom reality and inside – classroom pedagogy. In an outside classroom reality communicational tasks enable the course to be organized around ‘ chunks of communication which reflects students’ needs interests and experiences ; besides, in a inside classroom pedagogy , they provide an organization focus for the individual components of language ( structures, vocabulary, and so on ) that students have to learn in order to communicate (Littlewood, 2004).
In addition, ” for the past 20 years, second language acquisition researchers, curriculum developers , educationalists , teacher training and language teachers have devoted more attention to task – based language teaching (TBLT) (Branden , 2006). Furthermore, most of the research has been psycholinguistic in nature, to elaborate our knowledge of how people acquire a second language. Besides , in SLA tasks have been used in order to elicit language production , interaction , negotiation of meaning , processing of input and focus on form , all of which are believed to foster second language acquisition .(Branden , 2006).
Moreover, Doughty and Long (2003) defined methodological principles as a list of design features that can be generally regarded as being facilitative to second language acquisition. The following list, adapted from Doughty and Long (2003), serves as a guideline for implementining communicative language teaching (CLT) and task- based instruction.
➢ Principle 1: “Use tasks as an organizational principle
➢ Principle 2: Promote learning by doing
➢ Principle 3: Input needs to be rich
➢ Principle 4: Input needs to be meaningful, comprehensible, and elaborated.
➢ Principle 5: Promote cooperative and collaborative learning
➢ Principle 6: Focus on form” (cited in Brandl, 2008, p.7).
According to the first principle grammar has been used by traditional methods as basis for organizing a syllabus for decades. According to the latest approaches such as CLT and TBLT, the development of communicative skills is placed in the forefront. So, the question is that how to organize a syllabus. Some proponents (Breen 1987; Long 1985; Nunan 1989; Prabhu 1987) suggested using tasks as central units that form the basis and long – term lesson plans. Such an approach can lead us to task – based instruction. Moreover, based on the second principle a task – based approach indicates the notion of learning by doing. This concept is not new to CLT and TBLT methodologies , but it has been recognized and promoted as a fundamental principle underlying learning throughout history by many educators (cited in Brandl , 2008 ) .” In addition, as Doughty and Long (2003) reminded us, new knowledge is better integrated into long-term memory, and easier retrieved, if tied to real-world events and activities ” (cited in Brandl, 2008, p.12 ).
Furthermore, according to the third principle ” considering the rich input we each experience and are exposed to while developing our native tongue, growing up speaking in our native languages means that we are exposed to a plethora of language patterns, chunks, and phrases in numerous contexts and situations over many years. Such a rich exposure to language ultimately allows us to store language in our brains that we can retrieve and access as whole chunks.” (cited in Brandl , 2008, p.12 ). Additionally, based on the fourth and the fifth principle as Ausuble (1968) stated “a fundamental prerequisite for learning to occur is that the information we process must be meaningful. This means the information being presented must be clearly relatable to existing knowledge that the learner already possesses. This existing knowledge must be organized in such a way that the new information is easily assimilated, or attached, to the learner’s cognitive structure” (cited in Brandl , 2008, p.16 ). Moreover, in general education, the main important part of learning is cooperative or collaborating learning. In this kind of approach, students work together in a small cooperative team, such as group or pairs. To complete activities and also learning language through communicative use of the target language (Brandl, 2008).
2.3.1What is a Task?
Murcia (2001) citing from some scholars describe tasks as follows
• ” A piece of undertaken for one-self or for others,freely or for some reward…example…. Include painting a fence, dressing a child, buying a pair of shoes…..by “task” is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and between ” (Long 1985, cited in Murcia, 2001, p.35).
• ” A task is taken to be an activity in which meaning is primary; there is some sort of relationship to the real world; task completion has some priority; and the assessment of performance is in terms of task outcome” (Skehan,1996, cited in Murcia, 2001, p.35).
• ” The smallest unit of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target language. Minimally, tasks will contain some form of data or input(this might be verbal, e.g., a dialogue or reading passage or nonverbal, e.g. , a picture sequence). The task will also have (implicitly or explicitly) a goal and roles for teachers and learners” (Nunan 1989, cited in Murcia, 2001, pp. 35-36).
• Task is an activity in which,” meaning is primary / there is some communication problem to solve / there is some sort of relationship to comparable real- world activities / task completion has some priority / and the assessment of the task is in terms of outcome ” (Brown , 2001, p.50).
Moreover, according to Nunan (2004), ” he drew a distinction between real- world or target tasks and pedagogical tasks. In fact target tasks refers to uses of language in the world beyond the classroom, but pedagogical tasks are those ones that occur in the classroom”( p.1). In addition, Long (1985) framed his approach to task – based language teaching in terms of target tasks. He believed that target task is ” a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others , freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a pair of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing a library. In other words ‘ task ‘ is meant that the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play and in between “(cited in Nunan, 2004, p.2).
Furthermore, the first notice about this definition is that it is non – technical and non- linguistic. Because it describes the sorts of thing that people will do if they were asked what they were doing. So, according to this explanation in contrast with most classroom language exercises, tasks have a non- linguistic outcome. The second thing to notice is that some of the examples provided may not involve language use at all (for example painting a fence). Pedagogical Tasks: When the target tasks are transformed from the real world to the classroom it is called pedagogical tasks (Nunan, 2004).
In addition, Richards , et al (1986) stated that pedagogical task is ” an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language ( i.e. as a response). For example, drawing a map while listening to a tape, listening to an instruction and performing a command may be referred to as tasks “( cited in Nunan, 2004, p.2). Moreover, “a task may or may not involve the production of language. A teacher can specify what will be regarded as successful completion of the task. Thus, the more variety of different kinds of tasks in language teaching , the more communicative language teaching will make since it provides a purpose for a classroom activity which goes beyond the practice of language for its own task” ( Richards, et al.1986, cited in Nunan , 2004 , p.2).
Besides , Nunan (2004) defined ” a pedagogical task as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending , manipulating , producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning and in which the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulation form” (p.4). According to this definitions of task, they all emphasize the fact
introduction of authentic texts in to the learning situation.