involves abilities and attitudes that people possess, can be developed by employing the appropriate tasks.
In addition, through rejecting the major null hypothesis, the researcher found out that the overall performance of participants in CCT group was better than LS group on the grand mean for the posttests of oral proficiency, autonomy and creativity. In CCT group, learners had more golden opportunities to take part in learning process freely, evaluate and test their improvements because cue cards timed performed as a guide for learners during learning process and motivated them to know their styles and strategies in learning. In fact ” Learning styles are an appealing concept for educationalists because unlike abilities and aptitudes; they do not reflect innate endowment that automatically leads to success. That is, styles are not yet another metaphor for distinguishing the gifted from the untalented but rather they refer to personal preferences” (Dornyei , 2000 , p.122).
On the other hand, the findings based on the interaction between the performance of the two groups and the three tests indicated that there was a significant interaction between the performance of the two groups and the three tests. So, CCT subjects showed higher means on creativity and oral proficiency while the LS group showed a higher mean on autonomy. Although testing the H02 showed that CCT task – based instruction did not have any significant effect on learners’ creativity and was supported, it was a slightly higher mean on the posttest of creativity compared with pretest .Therefore, it can be concluded that employing task- based instruction can affect cognitive skills as well as speaking ability, but utilizing the appropriate task which is able to improve each cognitive skill and speaking ability significantly is a laborious job.
Overall, according to the results of this study, it seems that if EFL teachers are well aware of employing the appropriate tasks and with proper teaching techniques, EFL learners will benefit from the task- based instruction and their achievements will somehow be guaranteed in speaking ability and cognitive skills ( autonomy and creativity).
5.4 Pedagogical Implications
Certain implications can be drawn for all individual who are somehow involved in different contexts of EFL issues including; EFL teachers, EFL learners, and syllabus designers, and book writers. EFL teachers can get some useful tips in order to have more efficient teaching. They can enhance their students’ capabilities for language learning by paying more attentions toward the cognitive skills, individual differences, the nature of autonomy and creativity.
Moreover, EFL learners should use TBLT procedures in their learning, since it enhances learners’ accuracy and fluency as well as their attitudes towards English. Another pedagogical implication of the findings of this study will be for the domain of syllabus designers in order to give them some hints to design the course syllabus and adopt a new direction in their courses.
Last but not the least, the findings of this research can be of value for English book writers in that it may lead them to use more authentic tasks in order to write more appropriate materials for developing language skills.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
The main purpose of this study was to explore how task- based instruction (CCT vs.LS) can affect the development of Iranian intermediate learners’ speaking ability, learner autonomy and creativity. However, there are some areas for further research.
1- This study chose the Intermediate EFL learners as a control variable in order to neutralize the potential effect of language proficiency. Further studies can be done with the other levels in order to compare the obtained results.
2 -Employing just two kinds of task (CCT and LS) in this study, showed that there were significant differences between the Iranian EFL learners’ means on posttests of oral proficiency, autonomy and creativity, so other researchers can take in to account other tasks and conduct related study.
3- This study focused on developing EFL learners’ speaking ability, learner autonomy and creativity. Further studies can be done on other language skills.
4- This Study focused on the effect of task- based instruction in developing EFL learners’ cognitive skills. Further studied can be done on teachers’ cognitive skills and their teaching process.
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